I realised I haven’t posted anything for a while – I thought I had already posted this but apparently not! I’ve compiled a list of the discoveries I’ve been looking into to help me organise my research but also to find any gaps that I may need to research further (text in green is discoveries I have added).
1915: Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity
1929: Hubble Telescope, universe is expanding
1929: Red Shift, universe is expanding
1940s: estimated that background radiation should be a few degrees above absolute zero
1965: Background radiation measured at about 3.7°
1960s: suggested that universe had a beginning, BB proposed
Discovering how light elements are formed – need furnace like the BB
*1970s: Standard Model developed
- 12 different matter particles and 4 forces
- 6 quarks (make up protons and neutrons) and 6 leptons (make up electrons and neutral charged counterparts)
- Gravity, electromagnetic, strong and weak (forces)
- Can’t fit gravity in yet
- Predicted existence of Higgs boson
*2012: Large Hadron Collider and the Higgs Boson
- Each force has a carrier particle, called a boson, that acts on matter
- Higgs boson may have a similar function that transmits mass itself
- What is matter doesn’t inherently have mass but gains mass by passing through a field (Higgs field)
- Acts on particles differently
- Photons pass through
- Some bosons get mass
- Everything that has mass gets it by passing through the Higgs field
- Higgs carrier particle can affect other particles hence this can happen
- Found a particle that behaves like the Higgs boson should
2014: BICEP2, discovery of gravitational ripples that could only be there if inflation happened
So, I tried contacting the experts from Reboot but neither of them got back to me which was a shame. Instead, I went to AllExperts and asked the question to Professor James Gort ‘where did the energy needed for quantum fluctuations come from?’ He replied very quickly and here is his response…
I’m afraid science doesn’t have an answer to the origin of the energy contained (and then released) in the quantum fluctuations. Nor does science have a good explanation of what “energy” actually is. Most of the equations (even in quantum field theory) start off with the Lagrangian (or Hamiltonian), which are just ways of writing potential and kinetic energy. But the concept of “energy” is unexplained.
From your question, I assume you are adopting the “classic” view of Big Bang cosmology – which is still argumentative. It is ‘generally’ assumed that the Big Bang occurred some 13.7 billion years ago. Although this idea is believed to be valid by the majority of cosmologists, it is by no means universally accepted. The “Big Bang”, based on Hubble’s velocity-distance relation and the microwave background radiation, is very much still a theory, and there are alternative theories. Some observations do not support an expanding universe or the Big Bang. There are several references concerning this, but perhaps the most authoritative person is Halton Arp, a leading astronomer and researcher on galaxies, who wrote “Seeing Red“. That book is highly recommended to get an alternative view. Or read “A Different Approach to Cosmology” by Hoyle, Burbidge, and Narlikar. That’s another great book which gives a scientific view on how the universe has always been in a steady state. I’ve attached a few references from Amazon.co.uk. If you’re interested, pick up one or more of these books. And please have an open mind. That’s the way science progresses.
This was extremely useful to me and has prompted me to look into ‘Seeing Red’ as suggested (the underlined sections show the parts I found particularly useful).